### Overlapping of Atomic Orbitals

##
**Overlapping
of Atomic Orbitals**

When two
atoms come close to each other, there is overlapping of atomic orbitals. This
overlap may be positive, negative or zero depending upon the properties of
overlapping of atomic orbitals. The various arrangements of

*s*and*p*orbitals resulting in positive, negative and zero overlap are depicted in below figure.
The
criterion of overlap, as the main factor for the formation of covalent bonds
applies uniformly to the homonuclear/heteronuclear diatomic molecules and
polyatomic molecules. In the case of polyatomic molecules like CH

_{4}, NH_{3}and H_{2}O, the VB theory has to account for their characteristic shapes as well. We know that the shapes of CH_{4}, NH_{3}and H_{2}O molecules are tetrahedral, pyramidal and bent respectively. It would be therefore interesting to find out if these geometrical shapes can be explained in terms of the orbital overlaps.
Let us first
consider the CH

_{4}(methane) molecule. The electronic configuration of carbon in its grounds state is ⦗He⦘2*s*^{2}2*p*^{2}which in the excited state becomes ⦗He⦘2s^{1}2*p*_{x}^{1}2*p*_{y}^{1}2*p*_{z}^{1}. The energy required for this excitation is compensated by the release of energy due to overlap between the orbitals of carbon and the hydrogen. The four atomic orbitals of carbon, each with an unpaired electron can overlap with the 1*s*orbitals of the four H atoms which are also singly occupied. This will result in the formation of four C-H bonds. It will, however, be observed that while the three*p*orbitals of carbon are at 90 to one another , the HCH angle for these will also be 90. That is three C-H bonds will be oriented at 90 to one another. The 2*s*orbital of carbon and the 1*s*orbital of H are spherically symmetrical and they can overlap in any direction. Therefore the direction of the fourth C-H bond cannot be ascertained. This description does not fit in with the tetrahedral HCH angles of 109.5. Clearly, it follows that simple atomic orbital overlap does not account for the directional characteristics of bonds in CH_{4}. Using similar procedure and arguments, it can be seen that in the case of NH_{3}and H_{2}O molecules, the HNH and HOH angles should be 90. This is in disagreement with the actual bond angles of 107 and 104.5 in the NH_{3}and H_{2}O molecules respectively.
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